San Francisco Archbishop William Levada's Hidden Record

The Details

Archbishop Levada Travels to Rome with Scandal Baggage
 by Lee Penn



Archbishop William J. Levada is getting a big promotion, courtesy of Benedict XVI.  Levada is moving from the Archdiocese of San Francisco to become the Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) - Benedict's former position.  Levada will be in charge of the Vatican bureaucracy that defends the Catholic faith against heresy, and deals with priests accused of abuse.  As such, he will hold the second-most powerful post in the Vatican, and is the first American to hold such high rank and great influence within the Catholic Church.(1)

At his $150-a-plate farewell dinner in a San Francisco hotel on August 13 (a banquet attended by 2,300 well-wishers), Levada said that abuse by clergy is a "crisis in the United States. By and large the people in our parishes they think that the steps that our bishops of this country have taken have done a great job and are meeting the crisis and doing an outreach program trying to prevent any kind of abuse by clergy or anyone else."(2)  At a news conference before the dinner, Levada said, "We have done our best to reach out" to the victims of abuse, and "I leave San Francisco with a good conscience."(3)

Levada's publicists laud his handling of the Scandal.  An account in the Archdiocesan newspaper runs thus:  "Though the vast majority of incidents took place before he became archbishop, Archbishop Levada has devoted much time and energy in forthrightly and compassionately attempting to heal this problem.  And if he did not have enough problems in his own archdiocese, in 1999 he was appointed administrator of the Diocese of Santa Rosa to clean up the financial and sexual scandal debilitating that diocese.  Again, his forthrightness and integrity moved that diocese toward healing."(4)

The Archbishop also has gathered praise from William Swing, the Episcopal Bishop of California.  (Swing is the founder of the United Religions Initiative(4a), a New Age(4b) interfaith movement that includes everyone from Wiccans and Scientologists to Moonies(4c), Theosophists, and Catholics).  Swing says, "I truly admire him: his heart toward God; outstanding scholar; devotion to the Church; a rich capacity for friendship; candor, strength, integrity, and grace."(5)

Levada's Vatican career began in 1976, when "then-Archbishop Joseph Bernardin, President of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops," recommended Levada's appointment to serve "as an Official of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith."(6)  It was during this Vatican posting, which lasted until 1982, that Ratzinger met Levada.

Levada moves upward with the approval of his own conscience and his publicists, and with applause from his counterpart in the Episcopal Church.  Are these laurels well-earned, considering how Levada has handled the clergy abuse scandal during his career?

The Archbishop's administrative record indicates otherwise.  No one has ever accused Levada of abuse, but he has employed the same damage control tactics that most other American bishops have used to limit the costs and bad publicity resulting from the scandal.  If Levada's track record predicts his future performance, it's likely that the Catholic Church hierarchy will continue to respond to the corruption of the priesthood and the episcopacy with half-measures, spin, and clever legal maneuvers.  And now that Levada has been promoted, courtesy of the Roman Pontiff, we can justly trace the ongoing scandal and coverup to the Papal throne.

Here's the evidence:

From 1986 to 1995, Levada was the Archbishop of Portland, Oregon.  This Archdiocese filed for bankruptcy protection in July 2004 - the first American diocese to do so, as a response to lawsuits by abuse survivors who were seeking $155 million in damages.(7)  Within the last year, three of the Portland-area plaintiffs have committed suicide.(8)  Catholic World Report states, "Several of the devastating lawsuits against the archdiocese involved priests who were restored to parish work by Archbishop Levada after having been accused of molesting children, or protected from criminal prosecution when their misdeed came to the archbishop's attention."(9)  The bankruptcy came nine years after Levada left Portland, but the fallout from his stewardship continues:

1.   Would an honorable man try to dodge a subpoena, and then call the process server a "disgrace to the Church"? 

On August 7, minutes before he processed to the altar to begin his final Sunday Mass in San Francisco, Levada was subpoenaed to require him to testify at a deposition requested by attorneys for 250 victims in clergy abuse lawsuits against the Archdiocese of Portland.(10)  Levada balked at the subpoena, accepting the document only when he was told that he would otherwise be given the papers during the liturgy while he was at the altar.(11) 

As CBS News reported, "Cookie Gambucci, whose brother is one of the plaintiffs in the Portland case, served the court papers on Levada. She told KCBS reporter Tim Ryan the archbishop called her 'a disgrace to the Catholic church.'  'That's what he said. Now I'm thinking about all the priests that have abused all those little kids, including my brother,' said Gambucci, 'and I'm thinking, let's define disgrace to the church.'  'It was pretty sickening to hear that from a bishop who is hiding all of these people that are doing all of this abuse,' she said.  She had tried unsuccessfully on several other occasions to serve Levada with papers.

'This is our last chance and [we] got him today,' Gambucci said."(12)  (A lay minister who was in the sacristy at the time that the process server confronted the Archbishop confirms that the prelate called her "a disgrace to the Church."(13))  "Portland attorney Erin Olson, who represents 15 of the Oregon plaintiffs, said Levada had been avoiding the subpoena since May."(14)  On August 11, Levada agreed to waive the diplomatic immunity that he will enjoy as a Vatican official, and will return to the US for a one-day deposition in January.(15)

2.   As part of the bankruptcy litigation, all parishes in the Portland Archdiocese are listed as defendants - and so are all registered members of Portland's 124 parishes.  The individual parishioners will all get legal notices in writing in the next few weeks, and "lawyers for the archdiocese say that the cost of notifying the 389,000 defendants will be about $80,000."(16) Lawyers for both sides agree that individual parishioners will not be liable to pay damages, but "parishes and schools could be closed if the court finds that they belong to the archdiocese." (17) 

Having all laymen as defendants in a suit against the Church gives a new meaning to the Vatican II call for "fully conscious, and active"(18) lay participation in the life and liturgy of the Church.

3.   In a July 16, 2004 article in Catholic San Francisco, Levada disavowed responsibility for the Portland bankruptcy, and blamed the victims' attorneys. 

As San Francisco Faith summarized:  "Archbishop Levada said that when he left Portland, the archdiocese 'was in excellent financial condition.' Even today, the archdiocese suffers no 'financial collapse;' rather, Portland's problems have 'arisen because of new allegations made in the past few years about abuse that was unknown until recently brought forward by victims.'

The 'greed of plaintiffs' attorneys,' said Levada, has exacerbated the situation. Attorneys like Anderson, he said, 'see the sex-abuse crisis as a way to push for excessive judgments for victims from which these lawyers will benefit handsomely.'  Attorneys for alleged victims, said Levada, have used the claims 'of terrible sexual abuse by priests, many of whom are dead,' to get 'victims to step forward decades after the fact to push claims for huge monetary damages from bishops today who had no responsibility or oversight for those priests - claims that can be satisfied only by the threat of divesting today's parishioners of their churches, today's children of their schools, today' s poor of the Church's charitable outreach.'  'This is not justice,' said the archbishop."(19)


4.   In 1994, Levada's diocesan attorneys fended off a liability suit by a woman who had been impregnated by a religious order seminarian, Mr. Uribe.  One of the claims made in defense of the Church was that the mother was negligent because she had engaged in "unprotected intercourse,"(20) even though the Church teaches that use of "protection" - artificial birth control - is "intrinsically evil."(21) 

The details show that Levada need not have made such a hypocritical defense.  The mother had met the Redemptorist seminarian (who was then working in a Portland church) in 1991, and they soon began a consensual affair.  The relationship ended seven months later, when the mother informed the seminarian that she was pregnant.  The child was born in February 1993, and a paternity test proved that the seminarian was the father.  As the Los Angeles Times reports, "As the birth of the baby approached," the mother sought a court order for child support from the seminarian; "she also sued the Archdiocese of Portland and the Redemptorists for $200,000. She alleged that the seminarian, by having sex with a parishioner, had breached his fiduciary duty as someone who 'performed pastoral duties for the archdiocese.'"(22)

The archdiocese replied (correctly) in 1994 that "it had never directly employed Uribe." (23)  Additionally, however, "the archdiocese said the 'birth of the plaintiff's child and the resultant expenses"  are the result of the plaintiff's own negligence,'" (24) because she engaged "in unprotected intercourse . . . when (she) should have known that could result in pregnancy."(25)  Meanwhile, the seminarian was ordained to the priesthood in 1995 by his order - even though they knew he had a child.(26) 

What do the Archbishop's defenders say?  The PR man for the Archdiocese of Portland acknowledged that "Levada was well aware of the Uribe case," but denied responsibility for the tactics used by the church's attorneys: "Archbishop Levada did not see the legal defense, see it or approve it. I don't think it's realistic to expect that an archbishop can track every single legal case." (27)  The attorney who devised the defense considers it routine.

Richard J. Kuhn "said he wrote Levada's answer to the complaint strictly from a 'common sense' legal perspective, without regard to Catholic teachings.  However, Kuhn, an outside attorney who was hired by the archdiocese to handle the case, questions whether Levada ever saw the document. 'I doubt that the archbishop would have gotten a copy of the pleading,' he said.  He said his best recollection about the proceeding was that he worked exclusively with the risk management department for the Archdiocese of Portland."(28)

Liberal and conservative Catholics alike rejected this disavowal of responsibility by the Archbishop; on this matter, Fr. Richard McBrien (a liberal theologian at Notre Dame), William Donoghue (the head of the conservative Catholic League), and J. Michael Hennigan, an attorney for the Archdiocese of Los Angeles, agree that Levada should have known what the attorneys were saying in defense of the Archdiocese. (29)


Levada's record has remained the same during his tenure as Archbishop of San Francisco.

1.   Catholic World Report states that in San Francisco, "the archbishop has been roundly denounced by sex-abuse victims for what they see as his uncooperative attitude in efforts to identify and punish clerical abusers."   But some of the criticism raised against Archbishop Levada has also come from neutral parties.  For example James Jenkins, a layman chosen by the archbishop to chair an independent review board examining child-abuse allegations, eventually resigned in protest, charging that Levada had stymied the work of the board through 'deception, manipulation, and control.'"(30)  The San Francisco Chronicle reported in November 2004, that Jenkins "said Archbishop William Levada has blocked the release of the panel's findings on sexual-abuse allegations involving 40 priests."  In his resignation letter to Levada, Jenkins (a Catholic clinical psychologist) said the archdiocese panel could soon be reduced to 'an elaborate public relations scheme.' He said he doubts the church could restore public trust 'given its present leadership and the state of its corruption.'"(31)

2.  In 1997, when Fr. John Conley turned in one of his colleagues whom he caught "wrestling" with a teenage boy in a darkened parish sacristy, Levada's first move was to punish the whistle-blower.  Only later, under pressure, did the diocese do the right thing.  Here are the details:

As San Francisco Faith reports, "Conley walked in on Father James Aylward as he was wrestling with a 15-year-old altar boy in the sacristy of St. Catherine's parish in Burlingame. Conley reported the matter to the archbishop's office; but Aylward was not removed - Burlingame police, said the archdiocese, had cleared the priest of criminal wrongdoing. Levada did, however, remove Conley from St. Catherine's and assign him to a retreat center in Marin, though the archdiocese has said it was for reasons besides his whistleblowing.

Later, though Aylward denied that he had been doing anything more than wrestling with the boy, he confessed that he sometimes derived sexual satisfaction from wrestling with other boys. The archdiocese had to settle with the parents of the altar boy Conley had discovered in the sacristy with Aylward, and Aylward was removed from ministry.  Conley then sued the archdiocese for wrongful dismissal; but in November 2002, the archdiocese reached a secret settlement with Conley before the suit went to trial. In a joint statement issued after the settlement, both sides acknowledged, 'the archdiocese and Father Conley have agreed that Father Conley was right in what he did in reporting the incident to police. As subsequent revelations confirmed, Father Conley's instincts regarding the matter [were] correct.'"(32) 

Aylward's misconduct cost the Archdiocese a $750,000 settlement,(33) and the diocese had to pay Conley a large sum for dismissing him.(34)   Nevertheless, according to San Francisco Weekly, "long after Aylward admitted having touched boys for sexual gratification, Archbishop Levada expressed misgivings about Conley's role and said that under the same circumstances he - Levada - would not have reported Aylward to police as Conley had done.  'Based upon what [Conley] related to you [about] what he saw, had you seen the same thing that he claims to have seen, would you have reported it to police?'

 Levada was asked under oath while being deposed by an attorney for Conley in October 2002.  'I don't think so,' the archbishop replied. Levada said that based on the information provided by Conley, he and his aides 'drew legitimate conclusions that the incident was not an incident involving sexual abuse.' Asked the question a second time, he responded, 'I thought I said 'no' to that question.'  Following Conley's accusations, Levada ordered the priest not to refer to Aylward as a 'pedophile' and not to mention the matter to nuns assigned to St. Catherine's Parish, where Aylward was pastor and Conley served as an associate priest. Levada quietly transferred Aylward to a parish in Mill Valley. The pastor was later ushered into retirement after - to the humiliation of archdiocese officials who had defended him while vilifying Conley - he admitted sexual misconduct."(35) 

Without a civil lawsuit to force Levada's hand, it seems that the abuser Aylward would have kept his post, while the innocent whistle-blower priest Conley would have remained outcast.  San Francisco Weekly reports that this outcome was underway, till Aylward admitted his own proclivities: "Conley was castigated by archdiocese officials who rallied behind Aylward. As court documents show, Aylward supplied a negative report to Levada about Conley, which the archbishop acknowledged played a role in his removing Conley from active ministry. Levada's spokesman, Healy, accused Conley of conducting a 'witch hunt.' That was before Aylward's unexpected admission - in May 2000 during a deposition in the lawsuit brought by the altar boy's parents - that he had wrestled with altar boys for years, at times becoming aroused enough to ejaculate."(36)

3.  In 1999, Levada became temporary apostolic administrator of the Santa Rosa diocese (north of San Francisco), after Bishop Patrick Ziemann "was forced to resign when it came to light that he had blackmailed a priest to serve as his on-call homosexual partner."(37)  According to the San Francisco Weekly, "Following Ziemann's departure - he now lives in church exile at an Arizona monastery - it was revealed that the diocese was more than $16 million in debt. Levada authorized a secret $532,000 settlement to Ziemann's accuser, Father Jorge Hume Salas. Church officials sought to vilify Hume, who nonetheless managed to retain his priestly faculties as part of the settlement. After Levada stepped in to govern the diocese, a criminal investigation into alleged financial irregularities hit a roadblock when diocesan officials refused to fully cooperate."(38)

Levada's public response to all this?  Catholic World Report stated, "He asked the faithful to join him 'in thanking [Ziemann] for the energy and gifts he has shared far and wide.'  Resisting efforts for public disclosure of diocesan records, Archbishop Levada announced that the diocesan debt was the result of 'poor investment decisions.'  At a public forum in the Santa Rosa diocese in February 2000, the archbishop rebuked laymen who called for criminal prosecution of Bishop Ziemann.  'It's very inappropriate to call for the bishop to go to jail,' he said."(39)

4.   Fr. Gregory Ingels, one of the priests that Levada - and the rest of the Catholic bishops in the US - relied upon to make policy in abuse cases is an abuser himself.  Here are the details:

As San Francisco Faith reports, "Levada had known since 1996 of allegations that Ingels had orally copulated a teenage boy in Marin County in 1972. Ingels is a prominent canon lawyer and helped in drafting the U.S. bishops' 'zero-tolerance' policy toward sexual offenders."(40)  Additionally, according to San Francisco Weekly, "Ingels was used - with Levada's approval - to advise U.S. bishops and their aides on the handling of cases of clergy sex abuse in their dioceses. Ingels served as an expert witness on behalf of the church in cases all over the country, helping defend against legal claims by alleged clergy abuse victims. In addition, court records show, Ingels provided legal advice and spiritual counsel to priests accused of molesting children; published scholarly articles on the abuse issue under the imprimatur of the Canon Law Society of America, a group devoted to the study of church law; and lectured on the topic at clerical gatherings in the United States and abroad."(41)

For two decades prior to his removal from public ministry, Ingels had worked on the Diocesan tribunal that considers requests for marriage annulments.(42)  In 2001, the Archdiocese made Ingels the "director of formation for the permanent diaconate," a post which the priest held until October 2002, when (in accord with the US Bishops' new zero-tolerance policy) Levada placed Ingels on leave.(43) 

Ingels was arraigned in May 2003 for the 1972 molestation (which occurred while Ingels was a deacon and chairman of the theology department(44) at Marin Catholic High, two years before he was ordained).(45)  The priest had recently made "many incriminating statements" to the victim, who was (at the behest of police) secretly recording the conversation.(46)  According to the San Francisco Weekly, "Ingels acknowledged having had sex with the boy and could be heard, on tape, saying, 'What I did to you was terrible.'"(47)  However, criminal charges were dropped in June 2003 when the US Supreme Court reinstated a statute of limitations provision for abuse cases.(48)  The same court ruling aborted an additional possible criminal complaint against Ingels for abusing Jane Parkhurst, a high school girl, for four years starting in 1973.(49)  In June 2005, the Archdiocese paid a $21.2 million civil settlement to the victims of five priests - including Fr. Ingels.(50) 

Levada's handling of the Ingels case was one reason why James Jenkins, the former head of Levada's independent review board (IRB), lost confidence in the Archbishop.  As reported by San Francisco Weekly, "Jenkins learned that Ingels was among at least nine priests whose clerical privileges had been restricted in keeping with the new sex-abuse policy adopted by American bishops."  At about the time Ingels was arraigned on criminal charges, Jenkins and other members of the review panel learned that he was living with former San Francisco Archbishop John R. Quinn at Quinn's residence on the campus of St. Patrick's Seminary in Menlo Park.

Quinn moved to the century-old mansion on the seminary grounds after his unexpected retirement as archbishop in 1995. Ingels has been living with him in the elegant mission-style home, built as a summer residence for the late Archbishop Patrick William Riordan, since then, say persons who know the men. Neither Ingels nor Quinn responded to requests for comment for this article. Jenkins says that he and others of the six-member panel were especially disturbed by reports that a 'support group' for priests accused of sex abuse had held meetings at the residence. (The founder of one such group, Detroit-based Opus Bono Sacerdotii, confirmed recently that Ingels is an 'adviser' to it. 'Father Ingels may be the best canon lawyer in the United States, and we're grateful to have him,' said Joe Maher. 'He's an excellent priest, a very holy man, and he's a great help to us.')

 Jenkins says he and other panel members 'didn't believe that a former archbishop had any business keeping house with someone who had acknowledged on a wiretap that he had sodomized a 15-year-old boy,' and he and his colleagues saw the living arrangement as a source of scandal should it become publicly known. He says panel members conveyed those sentiments to Levada face to face, recommending that the archbishop order Ingels be moved elsewhere. 'We looked at the archbishop and told him in no uncertain terms that there needed to be daylight between Ingels and Quinn,' Jenkins says.  Levada responded that he would consult with Quinn, Jenkins says. A week or so later, Jenkins says, Levada reported back that he had spoken with Quinn, and the former archbishop 'had seen no reason' for Ingels to move out."(51) 

Earlier in 2005, Jenkins had corroborated the abuse accusations against Ingels.  In a February 2005 letter to the editor of San Francisco Weekly, Jenkins had said, "The facts, as reported by Mr. Russell, regarding the assaults by priests of the archdiocese on students of Marin Catholic High School almost 30 years ago are essentially consistent with my memory of the investigations by the IRB of these assaults. I was particularly struck by the courage of Jane Parkhurst to come forward with her story in such a public way. Jane's personal witness will hopefully give encouragement to other survivors, many of whom must still struggle with the abuse, to speak their truth.. The Catholic Church has a moral obligation to reach out and to heal such gaping wounds in the body of Christ. Thank you, Jane."(52)

President Truman, a Freemason(53) who authorized the utilization of the Atomic Bomb on two Japanese cities, had a sign on his desk, "the buck stops here."  Archbishop Levada's record in Portland and San Francisco shows that the soon-to-be guardian of Catholic orthodoxy and church discipline hasn't even attained that worldly standard of accountability and rectitude.

In Conclusion:
If the past is prologue (and that's the safest bet, barring a miracle) then it will be business as usual in the Vatican and coverup will continue to be "a     way of life" for the Roman Catholic Church Administration. 

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Notes:

1 Philip F. Lawler, "The Most Influential American Prelate - Ever," The Catholic World Report, June 2005, p. 24.

2 Sue McGuire, "San Francisco Archbishop Levada Leaves," CBS5.com, August 14, 2005, http://cbs5.com/topstories/local_story_226124628.html , viewed 08/18/05.

3 Leonard Anderson, "San Francisco archbishop prepares for Vatican post," REDNOVA News, August 13, 2005, http://www.rednova.com/news/display/?id=207026&source=r_general , viewed 08/18/05.

4 Jeffrey M. Burns, "Archbishop William J. Levada: Seventh Archbishop of San Francisco," Catholic San Francisco, August 12, 2005, p. A12.

(4a) False Dawn - The United Religions Initiative, Globalism, and the Quest for a One-World Religion by Lee Penn http://www.falsedawn.us

(4b) Beware! The New Age Movement Is More Than Self-Indulgent Silliness by Lee Penn http://www.leepenn.org/NewAgeComplete.html

(4c) The One World Religion - The Details - Learn to Recognize Them by Lee Penn http://www.leepenn.org/MoonieCrossURI.html

5 Bishop William E. Swing, "From San Francisco to the Vatican: A Friend En Route," Pacific Church News, Summer 2005, p. 3.

6 Maurice Healy, "Archbishop Levada: Measuring the Man," Catholic San Francisco, August 12, 2005, pp. A4-A5.

7 Leonard Anderson, "San Francisco archbishop prepares for Vatican post," REDNOVA News, August 13, 2005,
http://www.rednova.com/news/display/?id=207026&source=r_general , viewed 08/18/05.

8 "Sex-abuse claimant from Marion County kills himself," Salem Statesman-Journal, August 18, 20005,
http://159.54.226.83/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20050818/STATE/508180353/1042.

9 Philip F. Lawler, "The Most Influential American Prelate - Ever," The Catholic World Report, June 2005, p. 26.

10 Garance Burke, "U. S. Archbishop Subpoenaed Ahead of Mass," UK Guardian, August 8, 2005,
http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldlatest/story/0,1280,-5196733,00.html , printed 08/09/05.

11 Donna Horowitz, "Protests and Praise Mark Archbishop's Departure," Los Angeles Times, August 8, 2005, Internet version viewed 08/08/05.

12 Joe Rogers, "Conflict and Anger at Farewell Mass for Archbishop," CBS5..com, August 7, 2005, http://cbs5.com/local/local_story_219190304.html , printed 08/08/05.

13 Rocco Palmo, "Over and In, Last Call for Sin," Whispers in the Loggia, web log entry for August 9, 2005,
http://whispersintheloggia.blogspot.com/2005/08/over-and-in-last-call-for-sin.html#comments , viewed 08/09/05.

14 Donna Horowitz, "Protests and Praise Mark Archbishop's Departure," Los Angeles Times, August 8, 2005, Internet version viewed 08/08/05.

15 Catholic World News, "Archbishop Levada waives immunity, will testify on Portland," August 11, 2005, http://www.cwnews.com/news/viewstory.cfm?recnum=38963, printed 08/19/05.

16 Catholic World News, "Lay Catholics included in archdiocesan bankruptcy case," August 2, 2005,
http://www.cwnews.com/news/viewstory.cfm?recnum=38762 , printed 08/03/05.

17 Catholic World News, "Lay Catholics included in archdiocesan bankruptcy case," August 2, 2005,
http://www.cwnews.com/news/viewstory.cfm?recnum=38762 , printed 08/03/05.

18 Vatican II, Sacrosanctum Concilium, December 4, 1963, section 14,
http://www.vatican.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council/documents/vat-ii_const_19631204_sacrosanctum-concilium_en.html

19 San Francisco Faith, "Bankruptcy Not My Fault," September 2004, http://www.sffaith.com/ed/news/2004news/0409news.htm

20 William Lobdell, "Priest and His Son Are Bound by Poverty," Los Angeles Times, July 24, 2005,
http://news.yahoo.com/s/latimests/priestandhissonareboundbypoverty&printer=1 , printed 08/19/05.

21 Catechism of the Catholic Church, section 2370.

22 William Lobdell, "Priest and His Son Are Bound by Poverty," Los Angeles Times, July 24, 2005,
http://news.yahoo.com/s/latimests/priestandhissonareboundbypoverty&printer=1 , printed 08/19/05.

23 William Lobdell, "Priest and His Son Are Bound by Poverty," Los Angeles Times, July 24, 2005,
http://news.yahoo.com/s/latimests/priestandhissonareboundbypoverty&printer=1 , printed 08/19/05.

24 William Lobdell, "Priest and His Son Are Bound by Poverty," Los Angeles Times, July 24, 2005,
http://news.yahoo.com/s/latimests/priestandhissonareboundbypoverty&printer=1 , printed 08/19/05.

25 Steve Duin, "Catholics struggle to get house in order," The Oregonian, August 9, 2005,
http://www.oregonlive.com/news/oregonian/steve_duin/index.ssf?/base/news/1123581946206180.xml&coll=7 , printed 08/10/05.
(This is a quotation from the papers filed by the attorneys for the Archdiocese.)

26 William Lobdell, "Priest's Son to Get a Boost in Assistance," Los Angeles Times, July 28. 2005, printed 07/28/05.

27 Steve Duin, "Catholics struggle to get house in order," The Oregonian, August 9, 2005,
http://www.oregonlive.com/news/oregonian/steve_duin/index.ssf?/base/news/1123581946206180.xml&coll=7 , printed 08/10/05.

28 William Lobdell, "Faithful Furious Over Tactic," Los Angeles Times, August 3, 2005,
http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-me-levada3aug03,0,2860940.story?coll=la-home-headlines , printed 08/03/05.

29 William Lobdell, "Faithful Furious Over Tactic," Los Angeles Times, August 3, 2005,
http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-me-levada3aug03,0,2860940.story?coll=la-home-headlines , printed 08/03/05.

30 Philip F. Lawler, "The Most Influential American Prelate - Ever," The Catholic World Report, June 2005, pp. 26-27.

31 Don Lattin, "Levada takes heat over abuse inquiry; Panel member resigns, says church suppressed results," San Francisco Chronicle, November 12, 2004,
http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2004/11/12/MNGE79QGG71.DTL&hw=Ingels+priest+abuse&sn=003&sc=175 , printed 08/19/05.

32 Christopher Zehnder, "None More Moderate: The Mixed Legacy of Archbishop Levada," San Francisco Faith, July/August 2005, http://www.sffaith.com/ed/articles/2005/0507cz2.htm.

33 Brooks Egerton and Reese Dunklin, "Special Reports: Catholic Bishops and Sex Abuse," Dallas Morning News, June 2002,
http://www.dallasnews.com/cgi-bin/bi/dallas/2002/priests.cgi?bishop=13&title=&diocese=&state=&keyword=Enter+keyword&step=Search&step=Search ,
printed 08/19/05.

34 Ron Russell, "Settling Things Quietly," San Francisco Weekly, January 14, 2004,
http://www.sfweekly.com/issues/2004-01-14/news/bayview.html , printed 08/20/05.

35 Ron Russell, "Settling Things Quietly," San Francisco Weekly, January 14, 2004,
http://www.sfweekly.com/issues/2004-01-14/news/bayview.html , printed 08/20/05.

36 Ron Russell, "Settling Things Quietly," San Francisco Weekly, January 14, 2004,
http://www.sfweekly.com/issues/2004-01-14/news/bayview.html , printed 08/20/05.

37 Philip F. Lawler, "The Most Influential American Prelate - Ever," The Catholic World Report, June 2005, p. 27.

38 Ron Russell, "See No Evil," San Francisco Weekly, May 21, 2003, http://www.sfweekly.com/Issues/2003-05-21/news/feature_print.html , printed 08/20/05.

39 Philip F. Lawler, "The Most Influential American Prelate - Ever," The Catholic World Report, June 2005, p. 27.

40 Christopher Zehnder, "None More Moderate: The Mixed Legacy of Archbishop Levada," San Francisco Faith, July/August 2005, http://www.sffaith.com/ed/articles/2005/0507cz2.htm

41 Ron Russell, "Blind Eye Unto the Holy See," San Francisco Weekly, July 13, 2005,
http://www.sfweekly.com/Issues/2005-07-13/news/feature_print.html , printed 08/19/05.

42 Don Lattin et. al., "Expert on dealing with abuse accused: Bay Area priest faces molestation charge," San Francisco Chronicle, May 23, 2003, http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2003/05/23/MN265106.DTL , printed 08/19/05.

43 Don Lattin et. al., "Expert on dealing with abuse accused: Bay Area priest faces molestation charge," San Francisco Chronicle, May 23, 2003, http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2003/05/23/MN265106.DTL , printed 08/19/05.

44 Ron Russell, "Blind Eye Unto the Holy See," San Francisco Weekly, July 13, 2005, http://www.sfweekly.com/Issues/2005-07-13/news/feature_print.html , printed 08/19/05.

45 Peter Fimrite, "Priest who advised on abuse arraigned in Marin," San Francisco Chronicle, May 29, 2003,
http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2003/05/29/BA142956.DTL&hw=Ingels+priest+abuse&sn=006&sc=393 , printed 08/19/05.

46 Don Lattin et. al., "Expert on dealing with abuse accused: Bay Area priest faces molestation charge," San Francisco Chronicle, May 23, 2003, http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2003/05/23/MN265106.DTL , printed 08/19/05.

47 Ron Russell, "Blind Eye Unto the Holy See," San Francisco Weekly, July 13, 2005, http://www.sfweekly.com/Issues/2005-07-13/news/feature_print.html , printed 08/19/05.

48 Charlie Goodyear et. al., "California molestation law struck down: Lifting of statute of limitations for prosecution ruled unconstitutional," San Francisco Chronicle, June 27, 2003, http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2003/06/27/MN290670.DTL&hw=Ingels+priest+abuse&sn=004&sc=140 , printed 08/19/05.

49 Ron Russell, "Blind Eye Unto the Holy See," San Francisco Weekly, July 13, 2005, http://www.sfweekly.com/Issues/2005-07-13/news/feature_print.html , printed 08/19/05.

50 Wyatt Buchanan et. al., "$21.2 million settlement for victims of 5 priests; S. F. archdiocese faces 45 more cases," San Francisco Chronicle, June 11, 2005,
http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2005/06/11/BAG1AD77VU1.DTL&hw=Ingels+priest+abuse&sn=002&sc=151 ,
printed 08/19/05.

51 Ron Russell, "Blind Eye Unto the Holy See," San Francisco Weekly, July 13, 2005, http://www.sfweekly.com/Issues/2005-07-13/news/feature_print.html , printed 08/19/05.

52 James Jenkins, "Letter to the Editor," San Francisco Weekly, February 9, 2005, http://www.sfweekly.com/issues/2005-02-09/news/letters.html , printed 08/20/05.

53 The Grand Lodge of Texas, "Masonic Presidents," http://www.grandlodgeoftexas.org/masonic-presidents.php , printed 08/19/05.